Crop Circle Scientific Evidence
At the centre of
scientific research on plants from crop circles is biophysicist W.C.
Levengood of the Pinelandia Biophysical lab in Michigan. Here we summarise
some of his findings :
cell pit changes
Dr Levengood examined wheat samples collected from inside and outside the Woodborough Hill formation. Based on 30 samples, he found a 21 per cent average and consistent increase in cell pit diameters compared to normal control cells. ( Cell pits are small holes in plant cells that allow fluid to flow up and down plant stalks. )
Over the past two
years, Dr Levengood has measured a consistent 23 per cent mean average
increase in cell pit diameters. He has also discovered a gradual gradation
increasing in cell pit size from the edge of the plant leaf to the center
and from the outer edge of formations to the centers. If a plant is
stepped on, the physical pressure of impact will force fluid in the
stem to expand rapidly. Consequently, cell pits will enlarge. But in
that situation the expansion is randomly distributed. So far, the only
way Levengood has been able to reproduce a consistent cell pit change
in control plants was to place them in a microwave oven.
Dr Levengood also
found evidence of rapid heating in corn seeds from a Medina, New York,
circle in October 1991. Those seeds were sent to a scientist who used
a scanning electron microscope. She said: "I found unusual crystals,
like seeds heated by microwave."
in seed growth
cracking and reorientation
a chemist trained in plant physiology who works for Alvey Labs in Belleville,
Illinois, said the affected plants in Troy showed sodium levels twice
as high as unaffected plants and a 5 per cent decrease in nitrogen content.
This might be the result of dehydration, but Yarkosky said she did not
know the cause.
Dr Levengood reports
that in these naturally flat-growing vine plants, he found cell pit
enlargement ranging from 19.1 per cent to 27.9 per cent and a striking
difference between potatoes from inside the circle compared with potatoes
from outside. The normal control 'potatoes' were smooth, red, no blemishes.
Samples from inside the circle had yellow streaks along the surface
and cracks in the outer epidermis. He found no difference in the internal
tissues of control and sample potatoes.
He found that tassels
from the young control plants were tightly closed as they should have
been. But in the formation plants, the tassels were completely opened
up, suggesting accelerated growth of the affected plants after or during
the rectangles' creation.
Dr Levengood has also published a portion of his findings in a peer-review journal, Physiologia Plantarum ( vol. 92, Issue 2, 1994 ). In the Journal of Scientific Exploration, June 1995, he published a second article on a "magnetic glaze" found deposited on plants within a crop circle in 1993.
More information is also available from the Centre for Crop Circle Studies, P O Box 1732, Port Angeles, WA 98362, USA; phone: 360-452-9673; fax: 360-452-0849.